Petrov A.M., Kazan Medical University
Kasimov M.R., Kazan Medical University
Zefirov A.L. Kazan Medical University
ACTA NATURAE, Journal Year: 2016, Volume and Issue: 8(1), P. 58 - 73

Published: Jan. 1, 2016

Cholesterol is an important constituent of cell membranes and plays a crucial role in the compartmentalization of the plasma membrane and signaling. Brain cholesterol accounts for a large proportion of the body’s total cholesterol, existing in two pools: the plasma membranes of neurons and glial cells and the myelin membranes . Cholesterol has been recently shown to be important for synaptic transmission, and a link between cholesterol metabolism defects and neurodegenerative disorders is now recognized. Many neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by impaired cholesterol turnover in the brain. However, at which stage the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway is perturbed and how this …

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MicroRNAs: The Role in Autoimmune Inflammation Creative Commons
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Baulina N.M., Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University; Russian Cardiology Research and Production Complex
Kulakova O.G., Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University; Russian Cardiology Research and Production Complex
Favorova O.O. Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University; Russian Cardiology Research and Production Complex
ACTA NATURAE, Journal Year: 2016, Volume and Issue: 8(1), P. 21 - 33

Published: Jan. 1, 2016

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level through base-pairing predominantly with a 3’-untranslated region of target mRNA, followed by mRNA degradation or translational repression. Totally, miRNAs change, through a complex regulatory network, the expression of more than 60% of human genes. MiRNAs are key regulators of the immune response that affect maturation, proliferation, differentiation, and activation of immune cells, as well as antibody secretion and release of inflammatory mediators. Disruption of this regulation may lead to the development of various pathological conditions, including autoimmune inflammation. This review summarizes the data on biogenesis …

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Finkina E.I., Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry
Ovchinnikova T.V., Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry
Melnikova D.N., Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry
Bogdanov I.V. Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry
ACTA NATURAE, Journal Year: 2016, Volume and Issue: 8(2), P. 47 - 61

Published: Jan. 1, 2016

Among a variety of molecular factors of the plant innate immune system, small proteins that transfer lipids and exhibit a broad spectrum of biological activities are replica rolex womens watches of particular interest. These are lipid transfer proteins (LTPs). LTPs are interesting to researchers for three main features. The first feature is the ability of plant LTPs to bind and transfer lipids, whereby these proteins got their name and were combined into one class. patek philippe replica paypalThe second feature is that LTPs are defense proteins that are components of plant innate immunity. The third feature is that LTPs constitute …

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Heat Stress-Induced DNA Damage Creative Commons
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Kantidze O.L., Institute of Gene Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences
Velichko A.K. Institute of Gene Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences
ACTA NATURAE, Journal Year: 2016, Volume and Issue: 8(2), P. 75 - 78

Published: Jan. 1, 2016

Although the heat-stress response has been extensively studied for decades, very little is known about its effects on nucleic acids and nucleic acid-associated processes. This is due to the fact that the research has focused on the study of heat shock proteins and factors (HSPs and HSFs), their involvement in the regulation of transcription, protein homeostasis, etc. Recently, there has been some progress in the study of heat stress effects on DNA integrity. In this review, we summarize and discuss well-known and potential mechanisms of formation of various heat stress-induced DNA damage.

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Fedotova A.A., Institute of Gene Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences
Bonchuk A.N., Institute of Gene Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences
Mogila V.A., Institute of Gene Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences
Georgiev P.G. Institute of Gene Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences
ACTA NATURAE, Journal Year: 2017, Volume and Issue: 9(2), P. 47 - 58

Published: Jan. 1, 2017

The emergence of whole-genome assays has initiated numerous genome-wide studies of transcription factor localizations at genomic regulatory elements (enhancers, promoters, silencers, and insulators), as well as facilitated the uncovering of some of the key principles of chromosomal organization. However, the proteins involved in the formation and maintenance of the chromosomal architecture and the organization of regulatory domains remain insufficiently studied. This review attempts to collate the available data on the abundant but still poorly understood family of proteins with clusters of the C2H2 zinc finger domains. One of the best known proteins of this family is a well conserved protein …

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Borodkina A.V., Institute of Cytology, Russian Academy of Sciences
Deryabin P.I., Institute of Cytology, Russian Academy of Sciences
Giukova А.А., Institute of Cytology, Russian Academy of Sciences
Nikolsky N.N. Institute of Cytology, Russian Academy of Sciences
ACTA NATURAE, Journal Year: 2018, Volume and Issue: 10(1), P. 4 - 14

Published: Jan. 1, 2018

Cellular senescence was first described as a failure of normal human cells to divide indefinitely in culture. Until recently, the emphasis in the study of cell senescence has been focused on the accompanying intracellular processes. The focus of the attention has been on the irreversible growth arrest and two important physiological functions that rely on it: suppression of carcinogenesis due to the proliferation loss of damaged cells, and the acceleration of organism aging due to the deterioration of the tissue repair mechanism with age. However, the advances of the past years have revealed that senescent cells can impact the surrounding …

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Bacterial Enzymes and Antibiotic Resistance Creative Commons
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Egorov A.M., M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University
Ulyashova M.M., M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University
Rubtsova M.Y. M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University
ACTA NATURAE, Journal Year: 2018, Volume and Issue: 10(4), P. 33 - 48

Published: Jan. 1, 2018

The resistance of microorganisms to antibiotics has been developing for more than 2 billion years and is widely distributed among various representatives of the microbiological world. Bacterial enzymes play a key role in the emergence of resistance. Classification of these enzymes is based on their participation in various biochemical mechanisms: modification of the enzymes that act as antibiotic targets, enzymatic modification of intracellular targets, enzymatic transformation of antibiotics, and the implementation of cellular metabolism reactions. The main mechanisms of resistance development are associated with the evolution of superfamilies of bacterial enzymes due to the variability of the genes encoding them. …

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Gusel’nikova V.V., Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution “Institute of Experimental Medicine
Korzhevskiy D.E. Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution “Institute of Experimental Medicine
ACTA NATURAE, Journal Year: 2015, Volume and Issue: 7(2), P. 42 - 47

Published: Jan. 1, 2015

The NeuN protein is localized in nuclei and perinuclear cytoplasm of most of the neurons in the central nervous system of mammals. Monoclonal antibodies to the NeuN protein have been actively used in the immunohistochemical research of neuronal differentiation to assess the functional state of neurons in norm and pathology for more than 20 years. Recently, NeuN antibodies have begun to be applied in the differential morphological diagnosis of cancer. However, the structure of the protein, which can be revealed by antibodies to NeuN, remained unknown until recently, and the functions of the protein are still not fully clear. In …

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PARP1 Inhibitors: Antitumor Drug Design Creative Commons
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Malyuchenko N.V., Lomonosov Moscow State University
Kotova E.Y., Fox Chase Cancer Center
Kulaeva O.I., Lomonosov Moscow State University; Fox Chase Cancer Center
Kirpichnikov M.P., Lomonosov Moscow State University
Studitskiy V.M Lomonosov Moscow State University; Fox Chase Cancer Center
ACTA NATURAE, Journal Year: 2015, Volume and Issue: 7(3), P. 27 - 37

Published: Jan. 1, 2015

The poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) enzyme is one of the promising molecular targets for the discovery of antitumor drugs. PARP1 is a common nuclear protein (1-2 million molecules per cell) serving as a “sensor” for DNA strand breaks. Increased PARP1 expression is sometimes observed in melanomas, breast cancer, lung cancer, and other neoplastic diseases. The PARP1 expression level is a prognostic indicator and is associated with a poor survival prognosis. There is evidence that high PARP1 expression and treatment-resistance of tumors are correlated. PARP1 inhibitors are promising antitumor agents, since they act as chemo- and radiosensitizers in the conventional …

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Makarov VV, Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University; Advanced Technologies Center
Love A.J., The James Hutton Institute, Invergowrie, Dundee
Sinitsyna O.V., Advanced Technologies Center; Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds
Makarova S.S., Advanced Technologies Center; Department of Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University
Yaminsky I.V., Advanced Technologies Center; Department of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University
Yaminsky I.V., Advanced Technologies Center; Department of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University
Taliansky M.E., Advanced Technologies Center; The James Hutton Institute, Invergowrie, Dundee
Kalinina N.O. Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University; Advanced Technologies Center
ACTA NATURAE, Journal Year: 2014, Volume and Issue: 6(1), P. 35 - 44

Published: Jan. 1, 2014

While metal nanoparticles are being increasingly used in many sectors of the economy, there is growing interest in the biological and environmental safety of their production. The main methods for nanoparticle production are chemical and physical approaches that are often costly and potentially harmful to the environment. The present review is devoted to the possibility of metal nanoparticle synthesis using plant extracts. This approach has been actively pursued in recent years as an alternative, efficient, inexpensive, and environmentally safe method for producing nanoparticles with specified properties. This review provides a detailed analysis of the various factors affecting the morphology, size, …

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