The model of education for forming the culture of tolerance in future specialists in the university environment was developed and implemented after receiving the data of the ascertaining experiment, confirming the necessity of formation of the culture of tolerance in educational activities. The model suggests a focused and systematic work on formation of the culture of tolerance in higher school (Verbitskaya, 2010: 160-163).
We used the methodological principles of systematic, activity, polysubject and culturological approaches, and the modeling theory; we studied the modeling of the educational process, as well as the peculiarities of interaction of the mentor and the students’ group.
Modeling is a process mediated cognition and transformation of reality, in which the object of study – the original – is in specific accordance with another object model (Solomatin, Gam, 2001).
The model is a tool of knowledge, a means of interpreting and explaining the phenomena of reality. It is natural that modern technology of making optimal managerial decisions in complex, non-deterministic situations is implemented primarily through the application of economic-mathematical methods and models, allowing you to process incoming information according to the model quickly and accurately (Ostapenko, 2005).
The model of formation of the culture of tolerance in future specialists can be defined as a structural-dynamic model. It includes the structure of the main components of formation of the culture of tolerance in educational activities at the university, the relationship of these components, the dynamics of their development and the conditions for their effective functioning.
Making model, we used the methodological principles and regulations of the systematic approach. The systematic approach as a methodological approach is seen as an essential tool in the implementation of educational activities. The systematic approach is based on the creation of structural and functional models that imitate the learning and studying processes as systems revealing the laws and principles of their organization and functioning in the future. Using the results of the research of such scientists as V.G. Afanasiev (1981), I.F. Isaev (1997), B. F. Lomov (2011), Y.P. Sokolnikov (1986), etc., who studied the pedagogical phenomena as systems, it can be concluded that the formation of the culture of tolerance in the university environment is a pedagogical system or integrity (Slastenin, Isaev, Shiyanov, 2007: 83).
In the process of developing the model of education, creating the culture of tolerance in future specialists in the higher education sphere, the activity approach was used. A.N. Leontiev revealed the significance of the activity approach in his works (Leont'ev, 1977:102).
As A.N. Leontiev stressed, a goal is important for any kind of activity, including the pedagogical one. A.S. Makarenko believed that the program of development of personality and its characteristics is the aim of the activities of the teacher, and he supported the idea of the designing of personality in pedagogy (Slastenin, Isaev, Shiyanov, 2007:18-19). In addition, in our study we also took into account a polysubject (dialogical) approach. A.A. Ukhtomsky and M.M. Bakhtin noted the uniqueness of the human person. In their works they noted that the personality of the person can be revealed only in dialogical communication (Slastenin, Isaev, Shiyanov, 2007: 88-89).
Both activity and personal approaches, and dialogical (polysubject) approach, form the basis of the methodology of humanistic pedagogy.
The ascertaining experiment has allowed us to determine the forms of educational work, developing the culture of tolerance, selected from many others by students and mentors of students’ groups. One of such forms is the organization of meetings with foreign students, representatives of different nationalities of the Russian Federation. This form enriches the experience of tolerant communication of future specialists and creates the tolerance-oriented educational environment. In addition, the following forms of educational work contribute to the creation of the tolerant-oriented educational environment at the University, where the future specialist can acquire the experience of tolerant interaction and communication: cooperation and partnership of the mentor and students; meetings with famous scientists of different nationalities, studying the biographies of teachers and graduates of different nationalities; organizing of Christmas balls (Christmas) and Easter with foreigners; the involvement of foreign lecturers.
The culturological approach is also important in the context of our research. This approach involves the construction of educational process on human values, on the norms and values of ethnic and national traditions and cultures. Mentors working on the development of the culture of tolerance in supervised groups should consider and apply this principle. The culturological approach means the organization of the educational process where the personality is studied, and the formation of personal value orientations is observed (Isaev, Sitnikova, 1999; Nikireev, 2004). The value orientations of the individual represent elements of moral consciousness, its basic ideas and concepts, expressing the essence of the moral meaning of human existence.
The composition and structure of the main components involved in the development of the culture of tolerance in educational activities were determined during the analysis of objects and the relationship of these components within the system. The conditions of their functioning were revealed (see Fig.1).
The purpose-oriented block of the developed model includes the analysis of requirements to a modern specialist required by the society at this stage, that means respectively the development of educational goals.
The defined goals are associated with the demands of modern society, its requirements to the future specialist and the development of the educational sphere in general, as well as with the peculiarities of professional values of future specialists. In the long run, these goals are converted into pedagogical purposes, as a result of interaction between the mentor and the students’ group, implying a change in the personality of the teacher and students, the shaping of professionally significant personal new formation (Isaev, Eroshenkova, 2010:100) – the culture of tolerance in students.
The pedagogical goal involves changing the identity of the teacher and students, creates in them the culture of tolerance as future professionals, therefore, there arises the next task before the mentor of the students’ group – the formation of the components of the culture of tolerance of the future specialist in their educational activities.
Informative block in the model of formation of the culture of tolerance of the future specialist in the educational work of the students’ group mentor includes the contents of the culture of tolerance, represented by the following components: axiological, communicative, and active. These components reflect the content of the educational activity of the mentor of the students’ group (see Fig. 1).
The educational content is determined by ideological ideas, moral values, ethical and legal standards, abilities and skills necessary for the development of the personality of the pupil, in accordance with modern life's demands (Krolevetskaya, 2006).This system is constantly changing, as new challenges posed by the society, its needs, its patterns and trends appear in the education and upbringing (Kroleveckaya, 2006: 116-117; Shchurkova, 2005; Avery, 2002: 270-275).
N.E. Schurkova considers the system of relations of man to the world and life as the main component of education.
The introduction of the pupil to the values of life, the formation of the valuable attitude to life, identifying and solving real-life problems, as well as the ability to cope with them in the future, emphasizes N. E. Schurkova, represent the content of the professional work of a mentor (Shchurkova, 2000; Ostapenko, 2005: 35).
The purpose-oriented programs and the educational objectives contained in them should be integrated into the content of learning subjects. It is necessary to look at the academic content not only from the traditional didactic principles (scientific content, systemacy, consequentiality, etc.), the principles of cultural conformity, cultural genesis, value orientation оf education, moral development of a person are equally important. Educational importance of literature, history, national and world art culture is traditionally high.
The system of basic national values is not only reflected in the content of education, but this system has a significant impact on its organization.
Fundamental values should be reflected in the content of extracurricular educational activities. The main educational unit of extracurricular activities is a cultural practice arranged by teachers and students as a cultural event which extends their experience in constructive, creative, morally oriented behavior in culture (Bratus', 1994: 62-63).
The content of the educational activities of higher school is usually represented by two components: invariant and variable. The invariant component is provided with educational, organizational, and socio-educational work (Eroshenkova, 2010).
These activities are implemented by all members of the University staff, its existing atmosphere, the educational influence of mentors of students ’groups and teachers, their experience and professionalism in the field of methodology of training (Eroshenkova, 2009: 50-52; Danilyuk, 2009: 55-64).
The variable component of educational activities of educational institutions is determined by peculiarities and traditions of socio-cultural environment, characteristics of upbringing process, experience in the field of methodology of training and in the sphere of professional training of future specialists (Leontiev, 1977; Isaev, Eroshenkova, Kroleveckaya, 2009:104-105).
The culture of tolerance should be considered as one of the necessary conditions for effective training of the future specialist. In the process of higher school education, the student acquires the skills of professional and social communication, the experience of tolerant interaction required and accepted in his/ her professional sphere. In academic work, the student faces various, sometimes conflict situations, requiring making productive and right decisions. Thus, a graduate student at the time of his/ her graduation has some social experience of solutions of conflict situations.
Each person has the experience of tolerance, positive or negative, including even little children. Students have such experience too and they possess different temperaments, characters, behavioral models, expectations, conceptions, but they all have to obey the higher school order, to take different teachers, someone in the group. Therefore, the creation of conditions that require interaction with other people is especially important in the formation of the culture of tolerance.
In the general system of moral influence on the personality of the University student, the special role belongs to the mentor of the students’ group. Mentors have influence on every person and the entire group not only in educational process but also in training, as the mentor of the students’ group is very often both a teacher and a subject teacher.
In the process of communication and interaction, both the mentor and students influence each other, enrich each other with new experiences and acquire the necessary personal-oriented attitude. This influence is expressed in the following system of activities.
1. Education of students in the teaching process of the mentor of his/ her classroom discipline, i.e. the mentor, being a teacher and a subject teacher, gives future professionals not only specific knowledge but also reveals to them some aspects of professional and human morals, develops the personal-valuable attitude in them, including the formation of the culture of tolerance.
2. Using the results of his/ her research work for the formation of the culture of tolerance of the future specialist:
a) the study of other mentors’ experience;
b) the study of the sphere of influence of special and social sciences on the development of moral culture, including the culture of tolerance of future professionals;
c) the study of moral principles formed in students during each year of study (stable indicators of moral qualities and characteristics of the personality, attitudes and beliefs, moral activity, actions and behaviour);
3. Regular communication with students, personification of activity of the mentor in developing the culture of tolerance: through discussion about cultural diversity, the organization of meetings with foreign students, representatives of various nationalities of the Russian Federation, tours to the near-abroad countries, the organization of Christmas balls (Christmas) and Easter with foreigners and other activities, group trainings on the development of tolerance.
4. A personal example of the mentor as the standard of high moral culture and professional duty (Eroshenkova, 2008).
The interaction between the mentor and the students’ group takes place in the higher education sphere, in this interaction the leading role belongs to the mentor who directs the educational activities and enriches them with a valuable sense and meanings, forming the necessary and desired values, professional and human attitudes.
The activities of the mentor and students in the formation of the culture of tolerance of the future specialist play a fundamental role, as the future specialist acts not only as a person in this process, as the object of formation of the culture of tolerance on the part of external pedagogical influence of the mentor of the students’ group, but also as a subject of creative transformation of himself/ herself, his/ her beliefs, attitudes, habits, stereotypes of behavior (internal influence).
Theoretically there are several components in the work on formation of the culture of tolerance:
1. Moral and tolerant education, in which future specialists (students) receive certain information about the principles, norms and rules of public morals, information, and understanding of the culture of tolerance and universal values. Conversations, stories, debates, lessons about cultural diversity, objectively existing cultural experience reflected in the consciousness of humanity can be used in this process (Bless, 1994: 11-18).
2. Teaching students the skills of tolerant behaviour through their inclusion in various types of practical activity, in the course of which future specialists gain experience of tolerant behaviour (Verbitskaya, 2010: 160-163). It should be noted that between moral and tolerant education and tolerant behavior there should not be any gap, because otherwise the students do not form the necessary habits of moral behaviour. In this case, group trainings developing tolerance, meetings with foreign students, representatives of different nationalities of the Russian Federation, tours to the near-abroad countries, the organization of the Christmas balls (Christmas) and Easter with foreigners, the involvement of lecturers – foreigners, etc. can be used (Mitchell, Salsbury, 1999).
3. Individual work of the mentor with students in overcoming negative attitude to different views, opinions, beliefs, representatives of different nationalities, religions and social groups. In the process of joint activities, students reveal their abilities and interests, reveal their potential, and show their needs, allowing the mentor to understand the future specialist better and to help him/ her in determining the objectives of his/ her development. Gradually, the student understands that the culture of tolerance is a personal quality that is required and satisfied the values of the society, characterizing a developing personality. Thus, the development of tolerant qualities of the individual becomes the aim of the student. The best methods of moral influence on students in this respect are individual conversations with the use of positive and negative examples of behavior and actions, suggestions, exhortations, etc. (Eroshenkova, 2008; Wan, 2006).
The technology block of the model includes a system of pedagogical conditions of formation of the culture of tolerance, as well as the technology of formation of the culture of tolerance of the future specialist in the activities of the mentor of the students’ group, consisting of three phases (planning – modeling, procedural – organizing, result – analytical). On the basis of the knowledge and experience of work of mentors, theoretical study of formation of the culture of tolerance of the future specialist, the research obtained data of the ascertaining experiment and the criteria framework for the assessment of formation of the culture of tolerance created in the course of the ascertaining experiment, we have determined the pedagogical conditions providing effective formation of the culture of tolerance of the future specialist:
systematic educational work on formation of the culture of tolerance in higher education;
ensuring the unity of the theoretical and technological training of mentors to formation of the culture of tolerance in university students;
the establishment of tolerance-oriented educational environment in the students’ group;
the subject- subjectival interaction of the mentor and students.
Technology is a sequence of realization of a set of pedagogical methods, forms and means for achieving the goal.
Criterion – an estimating block of the model of formation of the culture of tolerance of the future specialist in the educational work of the mentor of the students’ group – is a complex of definite criteria (motivation-axiological, communicative-emotional and activity-creative), allowing to determine the levels of formation of the culture of tolerance in students: low, middle, sufficient and high.
The resultant block of the model of formation of the culture of tolerance of the future specialist in the activities of the mentor of the students’ group implies the transition to the high level of formation of the culture of tolerance among future specialists.
Thus, the model for formation of the culture of tolerance of the future specialist in the activities of the mentor of the students’ group is presented with the purpose-oriented, informative, technology, criterion-estimating and resultant blocks.